Combustion is a new and exciting fat burning/fat prevention formula from BPS. It works to increase lipolysis and adrenergic stimulation, all while working to prevent redeposition of fat (fat gain) in the body.
Combustion will decrease appetite, improve mood, burn fat, and allow for rapid body recomposition.
Sourced from a specific mulberry tree native to China, Morus Alba is an exciting ingredient backed by quite a bit of research elucidating several potential benefits.
We’ll start with direct implications on fat loss. MA has been shown to lower blood glucose, while reducing oxidative stress in the liver (1). Decreasing glucose encourages the body to be in a better metabolic position to access stored fat as a fuel source. It has since been shown in multiple studies to have a direct effect on fat loss by upregulating beta oxidation, by increasing expression of PPARa and COMT1, while simultaneously decreasing expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) (2–5). In simple terms, this means an increase in fat burning with a concurrent decrease in fat storage.
Recently, researchers discovered that MA had the ability of preventing pre-adipocytes from becoming mature fat cells (6). Intrigued by these results, those same researchers performed a follow up study to see how that actually played out as far as fat loss. What they found, was that when two groups were overfed, the group treated with MA gained 27% less weight, 15% less visceral (deep) fat, and the existing visceral fat cells reduced in size by almost 50% (7). It also appears that MA helps regulate adipokine functioning, preventing dysregulation that can potentially lead to increased fat gain due to excessive signaling of the fat storage cytokines, so basically “cleaning house” in the fat cells (8).
In addition to the fat loss benefits, MA has quite a bit of supportive data backing it as an effective regulator of blood lipids. It has been shown to be anti-hyperlipidemic, enhance the function of the LDL receptors (decreased function tends to upregulate LDL cholesterol production), increase the blood clearance of LDL cholesterol, and decrease actual production of LDL (9). Far more important than lowering LDL-C (which is nice, but doesn’t necessarily reduce risk for heart disease), MA has been shown to lower LDL oxidation and foam cell formation (10). Foam cells are the immune derived cells that come in help and “patch things up” and swallow up oxidized LDL cholesterol at the damaged sites of fatty buildup in the arterial wall. Foam cells are more of a marker for arterial damage than they are the cause of damage, but they also can be dangerous themselves when they accumulate at one site. Another similar study noted that MA was able to significantly reduce susceptibility to LDL oxidation as well as decrease atherosclerotic lesion area (think of a wound in the arterial wall), by over 50% (11).
Alstonia scholaris is a specific tree from the Apocynaceae family, native to Southern parts of Asia. Several studies have demonstrated potential mechanisms of AS to aid in fat loss, as well as improve general health, and even boost performance.
AS has been identified as a b2 adrenergic receptor agonist, acting on the same fat cell receptor as clenbuterol to aid in fat loss (12). This also gives it bronchodilatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-tussive properties (13). Multiple other studies have confirmed this b2-AR mediated effect while also favorably modulating nitric oxide an prostaglandins, making it a solid choice for potential fat loss and performance enhancement (14,15).
A recent study found that AS acted as an adaptogen, aiding in the body’s return to equilibrium from stress by regulating various catecholamines and neurotransmitters. The researchers even referred to it as having nootropic properties due to its ability to improve memory during stress. It also demonstrated free radical savaging abilities and helped to normalize stress induced cholesterol elevations (16).
In addition to confirming its antioxidant status, a 2012 review supported the use of AS for blood sugar/insulin reduction as an anti-diabetic agent, which has been used for this purpose in traditional medicine in certain communities for decades (14). Again, better blood sugar management sets the stage for better access to stored body fat. Aside from the b2-agonism, free radical scavenging, lipid regulation, cognitive enhancement and blood sugar management, a recent review of Alstonia also noted anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic and analgesic properties (17). It would appear that Alstonia has quite a bit up its sleeve.
Also known as norcoclaurine, Higenamine is a major active component from aconite root, but can be found in at least seven different plants. Initial research on Higenamine was promising as it appeared to have similar effects to everybody’s favorite fat burner ephedrine, but not until recently (literally just a few months ago as of the time of this publication) did we have legitimate human data. Previous data earned it a classification as a beta2-AR agonist (like the asthma drug and popular fat burner clenbuterol), which awarded it some attention from physique athletes in the past few years (18). Now we have some interesting real world data showing that a higenamine based combination product increased blood free fatty acids (FFA’s) as well as energy expenditure after an overnight fast, versus the placebo group (19). It is important to remember that increasing blood FFA’s is only the first step in fat burning (lipolysis), but the study did also note an actual increase in calories burned. Also recognize that this study was done with a combination product where the other ingredients (caffeine and yohimbine) more than likely contributed to the effect. However, caffeine is included in Combustion and we feel the other ingredients in our formula can more than match the effect of yohimbine without the possible undesirable elevation in heart rate and blood pressure common to many users.
It’s no secret that forskolin has been widely recognized in the research as an effective lipolytic for over 30 years. Although we will not be taking an exhaustive appraisal of the research, as far back as 1987, we have data showing forskolin to be effective at reducing subcutaneous fat when applied transdermally (20). One of the main mechanisms of action is through activating adenylate cyclase which upregulates cyclic AMP production in fat cells, although other mechanisms are thought to exist (21,22).
So what does that actually mean for fat loss? One unpublished study out of Japan in 2001 showed a modest decrease in body fat in the subjects taking a forskolin product, which, while interesting, probably didn’t serve much purpose other than to spawn further research due to several uncontrolled variables. Another study in 2005 showed that 12 weeksk of forskolin supplementation favorably altered body composition while boosting free testosterone and bone density in males (23). And a brand new (Feb. 2014) study attempted to fatten up rats and track the effects of various compounds on weight gain. The researchers found that forskolin was indeed able to prevent weight gain compared to controls (24).
While the research on b-PEA has traditionally focused on neurochemistry, it does possess some potentially potent benefits as a fat loss aid while concurrently improving mood. Through elevation of catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, b-PEA can contribute to activating beta adrenergic receptors in fat cells to kick start lipolysis while increasing expression of HSL (25). b-PEA anecdotally tends to act as an appetite suppressant in most users, making it easier to stick to a hypocaloric eating plan, which has been verified in rats (26). It is also widely recognized to improve mood even at low doses, however the effect is short lived without the presence of a MAO-b inhibitor. Combustion does include piperine, a nonselective MAOI, which while not nearly as potent as a prescription selective MAO-b inhibitor, will help to keep the mood enhancing effect of b-PEA active longer, coupled with the recommended protocol of taking three doses per day (27).
Caffeine is one of the most thoroughly researched compounds available for fat loss and performance enhancement. Here’s some bullet points to summarize the immense data:
· Increased cellular oxygen uptake during exercise.
· Allows ability to perform more exercise with no increased sensation of effort
· Moderate doses improve performance just as much as high doses
· Blunts perceived exertion and pain perception, provides a more positive subjective experience while training .
· Shown to be ergogenic in intense exercise ranging from 4-180 seconds, and improves performance in single and multiple sprint intervals .
· Redosing caffeine six hours later not necessary to maintain increased performance in two-a-day workouts .
· Significantly improves time to exhaustion during exercise, even when taken four hours prior to workout .
· Increased thermogenesis
· Retention of muscle while hypocaloric
· Increased fat oxidation (28-36)
You’ll see piperine included in many ergogenic supplements these days, mainly to enhance the absorption and concentration in the bloodstream of other nutrients, which it does a great job of assuming the nutrient in question is broken down by a particular class of liver enzymes .
We’ve included piperine for this purpose, but also it’s potential effects to increase fat loss and blood lipids on its own, according to recent research. While most of the current research has been using animal studies, the results are compelling.
In two recent studies, when attempting to fatten up mice, researchers found that piperine was able to improve insulin sensitivity and favorably modulate AMPK and adiponectin (37,38). Another very recent study overfed rats a bunch of carbs and fat for 16 weeks, and found that piperine was able to prevent damage over the control group to just about everything you can imagine; blood pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress, liver enzymes, and heart function (39). Multiple other studies have shown improvements in general health parameters like oxidative stress and dyslipidemia during overfeeding when compared to non-piperine controls (40,41). Another study using carbohydrate and fat overfeeding showed that piperine was able to significantly decrease body weight and visceral fat compared to controls (42).
As well, Piperine has been included in the formula for its Monoamine-Oxidase inhibitory properties. Monoamine Oxidade (also known as MAO) is an enzyme responsible for the rapid breakdown of biactive amines (dopamine, etc) and Catecholamines. It is also the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of b-PEA. Inhibition of this enzyme allows for the b-PEA to remain active for longer periods of time.
1. Katsube T, Yamasaki M, Shiwaku K, Ishijima T, Matsumoto I, Abe K, et al. Effect of flavonol glycoside in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf on glucose metabolism and oxidative stress in liver in diet-induced obese mice. J Sci Food Agric [Internet]. 2010 Nov [cited 2014 Mar 13];90(14):2386–92. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20648552
2. Kobayashi Y, Miyazawa M, Kamei A, Abe K, Kojima T. Ameliorative effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high-fat diet: induction of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of lipogenesis, and suppression of oxidative stress. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [Internet]. 2010 Jan [cited 2014 Mar 13];74(12):2385–95. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21150120
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4. Peng C-H, Liu L-K, Chuang C-M, Chyau C-C, Huang C-N, Wang C-J. Mulberry water extracts possess an anti-obesity effect and ability to inhibit hepatic lipogenesis and promote lipolysis. J Agric Food Chem [Internet]. 2011 Mar 23 [cited 2014 Mar 13];59(6):2663–71. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21361295
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6. Hong Y, Kim M-Y, Yoon M. The anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pharm Biol [Internet]. 2011 Aug [cited 2014 Mar 13];49(8):775–83. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449830
7. Yoon M, Kim M-Y. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. Pharm Biol [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2014 Mar 13];49(6):614–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554004
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10. Liu LK, Lee HJ, Shih YW, Chyau CC, Wang CJ. Mulberry anthocyanin extracts inhibit LDL oxidation and macrophage-derived foam cell formation induced by oxidative LDL. J Food Sci [Internet]. 2008 Aug [cited 2014 Mar 13];73(6):H113–21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19241587
11. Enkhmaa B, Shiwaku K, Katsube T, Kitajima K, Anuurad E, Yamasaki M, et al. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) attenuate atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr [Internet]. 2005 Apr [cited 2014 Mar 13];135(4):729–34. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15795425
12. Hou Y, Cao X, Dong L, Wang L, Cheng B, Shi Q, et al. Bioactivity-based liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem ion trap/time of flight mass spectrometry for β₂AR agonist identification in alkaloidal extract of Alstonia scholaris. J Chromatogr A [Internet]. 2012 Mar 2 [cited 2014 Mar 19];1227:203–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269170
13. Shang J-H, Cai X-H, Zhao Y-L, Feng T, Luo X-D. Pharmacological evaluation of Alstonia scholaris: anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities. J Ethnopharmacol [Internet]. 2010 Jun 16 [cited 2014 Feb 19];129(3):293–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20381600
14. Rahmatullah M, Azam MNK, Khatun Z, Seraj S, Islam F, Rahman MA, et al. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med [Internet]. 2012 Jan [cited 2014 Mar 13];9(3):380–5. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3746667&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
15. Channa S, Dar A, Ahmed S, Atta-ur-Rahman. Evaluation of Alstonia scholaris leaves for broncho-vasodilatory activity. J Ethnopharmacol [Internet]. 2005 Mar 21 [cited 2014 Mar 13];97(3):469–76. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15849877
16. Kulkarni MP, Juvekar AR. Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. on stress and cognition in mice. Indian J Exp Biol [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2014 Mar 13];47(1):47–52. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19317351
17. Pankti K, Payal G, Manodeep C, Jagadish K. A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS : A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE. 2012;3(3):367–71.
18. Bai G, Yang Y, Shi Q, Liu Z, Zhang Q, Zhu Y. Identification of higenamine in Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata as a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist1. Acta Pharmacol Sin [Internet]. 2008 Oct [cited 2014 Mar 12];29(10):1187–94. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18817623
19. Lee S-R, Schriefer JM, Gunnels TA, Harvey IC, Bloomer RJ. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects. Lipids Health Dis [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2014 Mar 12];12:148. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139127
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22. Okuda H, Morimoto C, Tsujita T. Relationship between cyclic AMP production and lipolysis induced by forskolin in rat fat cells. J Lipid Res [Internet]. 1992 Feb [cited 2014 Mar 13];33(2):225–31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1314877
23. Godard MP, Johnson BA, Richmond SR. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res [Internet]. 2005 Aug [cited 2013 Nov 4];13(8):1335–43. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16129715
24. Doseyici S, Mehmetoglu I, Toker A, Yerlikaya F, Erbay E. The effects of forskolin and rolipram on cAMP, cGMP and free fatty acid levels in diet induced obesity. Biotech Histochem [Internet]. 2014 Feb 13 [cited 2014 Mar 13]; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24520882
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Combustion Supplement Facts
Serving Size: 1 capsule
|* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.
** Percent Daily Values not established.
2 bottles of 90 caps (bogo offer)
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